European and US research policies: which direction for 2014?
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Working together motivated us and we supported and critiqued each other. I put much of our individual and combined success down to our first studio and the sense of community it gave us. I worked part time glazing and loading the kiln at a ceramics cafe for kids. It was great because the proximity to resources allowed me to enrich my ceramics practice while I spent my spare time drawing, painting, and making. A couple of years of the grind and I started to feel weary of splitting my mind in two.

I wanted to fully commit to art, and to freelance life. I had to make it now! The money sustained me while I focused on improving my illustration. I practiced day and night and began to pick up some client work. In my first year at CalArts, I started Fisk for many reasons. Partly, to take advantage of the unethical cost of tuition fees and to get my monies worth. The second and main reason was to use the platform as a way to hang out with friends and become better designers together.

Fisk, as a school project, seemed limitlessly void of capitalism but I still hosted a funeral for Fisk as my senior thesis, unsure of how it could continue outside the safety of the university walls.

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This volume describes the initial direction and strategy of the first major the last two years of the war, and a logistical history of the Korean. Policy and Direction- The First Year. Book Cover, Policy and Direction- The First Year. James F. Schnabel. PDF To download as PDF click here.

I realised after graduating in , that even though I considered myself a graphic designer, I was interested in so much more. Interested in hosting events, sharing, publishing, curating collaborating, and creating community, too. So after graduation, I packed up and moved to Portland, Oregon without a job or a clear path for how I would use my newly earned degree.

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After a few months of nothing, I got the chance to work in-house at a big company and with some more confidence I started to apply for curator jobs at coffee and retail shops in town as a way of finding a community again. Rather than staying put in a cozy office job, I made the hard decision to start freelancing. Since no one provided me the opportunity, I opened my own gallery under the same name as my student project, Fisk.

I created my own path and learned that if you persist, the world will be on your side. Take small risks, then slowly take bigger risks.

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In Cameron's case, the macro-level of policy modernization has been characterized by an explicitly avowed departure from Thatcherism, which he deems no longer appropriate to addressing the most important or salient issues during the first decade of the 21st century and beyond. The historic April 27 summit has raised hopes that economic cooperation between the Koreas may soon resume. Gamble, A. Well today I want to tell you what world leading could look like. Truman replaced him in with Gen. Accountability not only helps the public, it helps us to tell our story. Consequently, some of those Conservative MPs along with one or two prominent Thatcherite peers in the House of Lords and associated groupings on the backbenches uneasy about Cameron's advocacy of modernization during his leadership campaign, have subsequently felt their initial apprehension turning into a growing sense of alarm at both the pace and the direction of the new leader's reform agenda.

Be in it for the long term, not the short term. Keep putting in effort and others will notice. You will be tested and if you can endure all of the nos, there will be yeses that follow. I graduated from Werkplaats Typografie, Arnhem in The first three times it was a no, and finally a yes on my fourth try. In my teens I dreamt of becoming a glamorous fashion designer, a fantasy that arose from being one of those Korean students who spent thousands of hours studying 16 hours a day.

Then, during my undergraduate degree studying car design, I felt like I was rambling for six years having wrongly pursued the degree because it sounded like a good degree. So at the end of my second year at Werkplaats Typografie, I decided to open a type foundry. All the expectations I had fell flat. But in April , I was nominated by one of my tutors, Armand Mevis, to receive a one-year-long grant. I had to write a year-long plan based on my practice and I strongly recommend recent graduates to do the same.

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In my case, it was a publication doubling up as a vehicle for typographic experimentation. And to end this story, I would like to share a mantra that still helps me significantly today: Life is not about speed, but direction. Standard membership is free and includes exclusive offers and promotions. Sign up to our newsletters for the latest creative news, projects and more delivered straight to your inbox. Over the past few weeks, our focus has been fully on the graduating class of Within the creative industry, the financial side of things is honestly quite boring and dry.

No part of starting a career strikes fear into the hearts of graduates and everyone else, for that matter more than the job interview. Even long into our careers, for many of us the nightmare of the interview still returns. We sit in front of a panel of stern judges, the setting resembling a courtroom more than any office, our palms moist and mouth sandpaper-dry.

For a lot of artists, the first brush with paint usually comes at an early age. Frequently circling between Beijing, Shanghai and Europe, Jin learned his craft as a photography assistant in this native capital city. Do Not Draw a Penis is the latest ingenious project from Amsterdam-based interactive design studio, Moniker. His work, in its capacity to act as an interface between people, organisations and communities, intersects with fashion, print and philosophy.

Get stuck in! BFR Mag Issue Another month, another Nicer Tuesdays! Cabeza Patata is an illustration and animation duo formed of Katie Menzies and Abel Reverter, who split their time between London and Barcelona. This Nicer Tuesdays, Katie and Abel will be talking through their recent work for Spotify, which visualises our ever-changing moods and the ability of music to help shape and change our feelings.

Her work is multifaceted and often incredibly technical, seeing her work with directors to bring their ideas to life. For her Nicer Tuesdays talk, however, Deepa will be talking through some of her personal work — in particular, a short film about her father — and her process for producing a film from idea to completion. Lovers is a creative agency that started as a handful of creatives, designers, writers and art directors, and has now developed into a few-dozen-strong collective spanning London and New York.

Despite the fact that Shinzo Noda freelances for clients such as Nike, Adidas and Supra, most of the work he produces is personal. Through design, the Paris-based creative explores design history to create projects which immerse the viewer in a specific atmosphere. Drawing inspiration from underground cultures, he mixes illustration and graphic design as harmoniously as possible to create work that feels distinctively Shinzo. She first graced our screens in and again in — like magpies we were instantly drawn to the bright colours and structural geometry that features throughout her work.

And now she returns with her latest series, Built Work. As a creator of the anthropomorphic, LA-based visual artist Derek Paul Jack Boyle frequently turns to everyday objects for inspiration. As an avid collector of imagery since the age of 15, Rotterdam-based artist and illustrator Maaike Canne has a tremendous pool of inspiration to refer back to. Secondly, by openly disavowing particular policy stances adopted by the Thatcher Governments during the s and acknowledging that these were, at least with the benefit of hindsight, unnecessary or unwise.

Indeed, the phrase also appears in the introduction to the Built to Last statement of Conservative aims and values Conservative Party, , which encapsulated Cameron's modernizing agenda and was intended to provide the context for the policy reviews undertaken during see below. Another major policy from the Thatcher-Major era for which a virtual apology has been issued during the first year of Cameron's leadership is the privatization of the railways.

Although this policy was enacted in by John Major's disintegrating Conservative Government, it has become widely viewed as symbolic of the dogmatic pursuit of Thatcherite ideology pushed to its destructive limits. He candidly confesses that: A series of blunders were committed in the s and s, of which the imposition of the poll tax was the most egregious….

Cameron reiterated his departure from previous Thatcherite policy stances when he informed delegates at the Conservative's conference that the days when the Party preoccupied itself with issues such as Europe, restoring grammar schools, promoting private healthcare and prioritizing tax cuts over improving public services should be gone forever, for the concerns which people had in 21st century Britain were not the same as those which prevailed in the s The Times 2 October At the meso-level of policy modernization, Cameron's attempt at forging a new mode of progressive and socially concerned Conservatism has been evident in the principles and aspirations articulated with regard to broad areas of policy, such as employment, and the environment.

In so doing, Cameron was also rendering more meaningful the Conservative Party's traditional emphasis on the importance of the family as a social institution, for Britain's long or unsocial working hours have increasingly made it difficult for parents to spend time with each other and their children something which Thatcherite Conservatives and their New Labour successors have never really comprehended.

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It will place a responsibility on business. The Conservative leader has also praised the work of Friends of the Earth in promoting measures to tackle climate change. Another policy area where a radical break with Thatcherism is evident concerns the new Conservative approach to poverty and social exclusion.

Elsewhere, Cameron urged a less punitive approach in the Conservative Party's stance on crime and anti-social behaviour. Instead, he has called for greater understanding both of the socio-economic circumstances in which crime seems to flourish, and of the individuals who engage in anti-social or criminal behaviour.

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Cameron has reiterated these arguments on various occasions subsequently see, e. In certain respects, Cameron's approach to discrete policy areas is also notable for what has not been said or emphasized. In particular, Conservative modernizers have made relatively little reference so far to issues such as asylum, immigration or the European Union.

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Furthermore, the divisiveness of the EU as a policy issue for the Conservatives has previously been a significant factor fuelling public perceptions of Party disunity, and this has reinforced Cameron's determination to avoid, as far as practicably possible, the EU as a policy issue aided, of course, by the Blair Government's indefinite postponement of referenda on British membership of the euro, and the draft EU constitution.

Clearly, however, many of these topics were inextricably linked. These would form the basis of further deliberations by the review groups in lieu of final reports being presented to the Shadow Cabinet during the summer of These would provide the basis of more detailed policies to be honed and unveiled during the remainder of and throughout , in readiness for the envisaged general election. Certainly, David Cameron's determination to reposition the Conservatives ideologically, and adopt a range of distinctly un-Thatcherite policy positions or principles, has aroused increasing concern and contempt in some quarters of the Party.

Although Cameron eventually won the December leadership contest quite comfortably — winning the ballot of grass-roots Conservative members by a majority over David Davis — it was evident that Davis or Liam Fox had been the preferred choice of many Conservative MPs, to the extent that in the second ballot of the parliamentary party, Cameron's two rivals from the Right of the Party polled a combined total of votes, while Cameron was supported by 90 Conservative MPs; in other words, Cameron won the largest number of votes among his parliamentary colleagues, but by no means a majority.

Sadly, some in our party have come to believe that by aping Blair, rather than studying Burke; by adopting the assumptions of the liberal elite, rather than recalling our Conservative roots; we might become as popular as our opponents. This route is likely to prove as disastrous electorally as it is unauthentic….

Conservatives must be both brave and authentic; brave enough to undertake the task of challenging the dominant liberal elite in all the spheres and institutions it has so effectively colonised, and authentic enough to regain the respect and loyalty of our natural supporter Hayes, , 7—8. This is because there are currently 24 parliamentary seats in which the incumbent Conservative MP will be defending a majority of less than 2, and in several of these, the majority is less than , thereby leaving many of them particularly vulnerable to a challenge by UKIP.

Certainly, many Right-wing critics of Cameron's stance are convinced that radical tax cuts would prove highly popular with voters, particularly as the tax burden is widely deemed to have steadily — and stealthily — increased during Gordon Brown's year tenure at the Treasury see, e. Moreover, although a ballot of Party members in September yielded a vote of 60, votes in favour of the Built to Last statement of aims and values, with 4, votes against, the overall turnout constituted a mere Yet, in spite of such hostility or indifference among the Party's grass-roots, and for all the criticisms expressed by some prominent Conservatives about the direction and speed of change, Cameron has evinced no signs of being deflected from his modernizing crusade.

On the contrary, he has insisted, on numerous occasions, that the Conservative Party needs to undertake further and faster changes. More specifically, on the symbolically crucial issue of taxation, Cameron has refused to yield to consistent Right-wing demands for a pledge on tax cuts. Such defiance was echoed, almost word-for-word, by George Osborne's speech at the Conservative's conference. Nor has Cameron evinced any subsequent inclination to yield to Right-wing demands, thereby ensuring that it remains a key issue in the Party, and is likely to do so until the general election, and probably beyond.

Cameron clearly envisages that confronting the Conservative Right over tax cuts will enhance his modernizing image to centrist voters in much the same way as Blair once confronted the Labour Left over Clause IV in order to signify his modernizing credentials to Middle England.

The council's choice would then be presented to a special meeting of the constituency party members, the expectation being that they would endorse the selected candidate.

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Together, these two characteristics of constituency-level Conservatism threatened to pose a significant obstacle to Cameron's attempt at crafting a more socially pluralist and representative parliamentary Conservative Party. In the first 4 months of Cameron's leadership, the Conservative Party evinced only a very slight recovery in the opinion polls.

Those Conservatives who had understandably anticipated a surge in the Party's public popularity following Cameron's election were to be disappointed and frustrated at the modesty of the Party's increased support. The Conservative Party's opinion poll ratings January—November Cameron himself has naturally depicted all of these polls as a vindication of his modernization agenda.

When the polls show an increased Conservative lead, he views this as evidence that he is leading the Party back from the political wilderness and reconnecting with moderate or centrist British voters, while narrower or diminished poll leads are deemed to indicate the need for further and faster modernization in order to persuade sceptical voters that the Conservative Party is genuinely changing and moving back towards the centre ground.

While clearly represents a significant improvement in the Conservative Party's poll ratings since , seven particular points need to noted in order to place this recovery in perspective. Secondly, due to slightly varying methodologies, some opinion polls conducted by other polling companies have occasionally indicated Labour leads over the Conservatives during The fluctuating nature of the Conservative's opinion poll ratings thus suggests that the Party has not yet established a convincing or consistent lead over the Labour Party, even though they have undoubtedly become more popular under David Cameron's leadership.

Thirdly, but following directly on from these two points, given the degree of disillusionment with the Labour Government in general, and the loss of trust in Tony Blair in particular, David Cameron's Conservatives really ought to have established a more commanding and enduring lead since December That they have so far failed to do so clearly suggests that public disenchantment with the present occupant of 10 Downing Street and his jaded-looking administration has not yet translated into a groundswell of sustained support for the Cameron-led Conservative Party.

After all, even during its nadir in the s, the Labour Party variously enjoyed opinion poll leads over Margaret Thatcher's Conservatives, yet these did nothing to prevent crushing election defeats in and Similarly, Labour's average lead of 2. Indeed, the fact that Labour's eventual lead in the election was only about half of what it had been throughout the previous two years reiterates the point that the single-digit leads over Labour thus far enjoyed by Cameron's Conservatives are highly unlikely to be sufficient to deliver outright victory in the next general election.

Again, the clear implication is that the lead over Labour thus far enjoyed by Cameron's Conservatives appears very fragile, and unless it can be substantially increased — and sustained — during the next couple of years, is highly likely to dissipate somewhat when the next general election is held. Sixthly, as noted earlier, David Cameron has spent most of his first year as Conservative leader talking in terms of a gentler, more compassionate and socially inclusive mode of Conservatism, whereby his Party will reposition itself on the centre ground.

This has undoubtedly proved attractive to some voters, but Cameron may well discover that once he and his senior Conservative colleagues begin to enunciate more specific policies during the next couple of years, some of this renewed support might diminish although, of course, it is also conceivable that greater policy specificity might actually attract support which is currently being withheld pending greater clarity about what the Conservative Party will actually offer under Cameron's leadership.

We have already noted the misgivings and mutterings on the Conservative Right over Cameron's professed objectives and principles, and these dissenting voices are likely to become more shrill and strident if the actual policies eventually promoted by Cameron and his senior colleagues maintain the clear break with Thatcherism which the rhetoric so far has promised. Public evaluations of David Cameron and Gordon Brown. The second source of comfort to be gleaned by David Cameron in the context of the often modest and inconsistent opinion poll leads over a tired and discredited Labour Government is his popularity among women voters.

Women have traditionally been more inclined to vote Conservative than men, but this tendency was reversed by the advent of New Labour. However, David Cameron seems to be winning back some of these women voters, particularly in the context of their disillusionment with Tony Blair and apparent dislike of Gordon Brown. However, given that had witnessed countless media reports of recurrent crises in the NHS, particularly with regard to massive deficits and consequent ward closures and redundancies, it might have been expected that the Conservatives would have established a rather bigger lead, but in the aforementioned absence of greater policy specificity, voters are not sure how the Conservatives would tackle the ongoing problems of the NHS, so that widespread public concern over Labour's chronic mismanagement only translates into a narrow lead for the Conservatives on the issue.

In so doing, he has explicitly eschewed Thatcherism, and effectively apologized for many aspects of it, while explicitly abandoning many of the policies implemented during the Thatcher-Major premierships. Cameron and his fellow Conservative modernizers have also emphasized that improvements in the public sector require the forging of a new partnership with the professionals employed within these services, and, moreover, insisted that such improvements must take priority over tax cuts. Ostensibly, this ideological repositioning and political re-branding has been highly successful, as evinced by the Conservative Party's marked improvements in the opinion polls throughout most of , when they obtained their first sustained poll leads since September However, more careful consideration suggests that the Conservative Party's recovery during the first year of David Cameron's leadership is actually rather fragile, and is unlikely to deliver victory in the next general election.

The Conservative Party's leads in the opinion polls during were erratic, and often rather modest. Certainly, the leads were neither large enough nor consistent enough to suggest that the Conservatives will win a clear majority at the next general election.

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Labour also performed relatively well in numerous local elections during the s, but such successes counted for nothing in general elections. Moreover, by the next general election, Tony Blair will no longer be Prime Minister, and his successor might imbue the Government with a renewed sense of vitality. It is also likely that Iraq will no longer be such a source of antipathy towards the Labour Government by the time the next general election is held. Hence the assertion that Cameron's Conservative Party has enjoyed only a rather fragile and unconvincing recovery since December , and that at least some of this is attributable to short-term factors.

If the Conservatives are to win the next general election, they really need to secure rather larger and more stable leads in the opinion polls. A further indication of the fragility of the Conservative's recovery in the polls during was the result of the Bromley and Chislehurst by-election in May, when the Party's vote was almost halved from the general election held just 12 months previously, thereby reducing a majority of 13, in to just in Another reason for scepticism about the extent to which the Conservatives have genuinely recovered from the problems that have beset the Party since is that David Cameron and his fellow Conservative modernizers have deliberately avoided making many specific policy pledges thus far, for perfectly sound political reasons that this article has duly noted.

If the subsequent policies are not deemed to match the expectations that Cameron has raised about a new mode of Conservatism for the early 21st century, the voters may conclude that the Conservative Party is not really offering anything new or novel, whereupon it will probably lose much of the additional support it has recently attracted.

Ultimately, therefore, this article maintains that David Cameron's Conservative Party still has a political mountain to climb. Although Cameron himself is certain about the route to follow in order to reach the peak, some of his colleagues remain, and will continue to remain, unconvinced that this is the correct path to follow. Meanwhile, although Cameron and his acolytes are understandably pleased with how much ground they have so far travelled, and how much progress they have made, those observing from a distance can see that they are barely beyond base camp. Skip to main content Skip to sections.

Advertisement Hide. Download PDF. David Cameron and the Crisis of British Conservatism. Article First Online: 11 June As already noted, Cameron's leadership has so far been characterized by a relative paucity of specific policies on particular issues, for reasons noted above. Instead, the focus has been on effecting an explicit shift away from Thatcherism, and the enunciation of a new stance with regard to broad spheres of policy. Thus did Cameron's election as Conservative leader herald the establishment of six policy review groups, as illustrated in Figure 1.